Advertisers Try to Avoid the Web’s Dark Side

In February, Kieran Hannon, chief marketing officer of Belkin International Inc., noticed an odd tweet asking the electronics maker why it was advertising on Breitbart News Network, a right-wing website known for scorched-earth populism.

A banner ad promoting the company’s new Linksys mesh router had appeared on the site, even though Breitbart wasn’t among the roughly 200 sites Belkin had preapproved for its ads.

Mr. Hannon called his ad agency, which couldn’t explain the mix-up.

“We still don’t know how that happened,” he said.

Such headaches are becoming all too familiar for marketing executives, as they come to grips with the trade-offs inherent in automated advertising. Known as “programmatic” ad buying, it is now the way the vast majority of digital display ads are sold.

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